Leona was born 25 May 1904 in Springville, Utah; the oldest child of Erma Adella Crandall and Moses Samuel Gudmundson. She was born in the home of her Uncle Myron Crandall at 186 E. 3rd South. When Leona was born, her mother lost her milk, so Sister Thora Tweede Hafen was her wet nurse.
When Leona was four she moved to Provo as her dad took a position of BYU professor of violin and orchestra. They stayed there for one year before they moved to another house in Provo at 488 N. 5th East. This house didn’t have any running water and was carried in by hand. They also had an outhouse. With time they did get running water in this house. The house had lots of shade trees, apple trees, pear trees, raspberry bushes, a gooseberry patch, a barn, chicken coop and big vegetable garden.
“We had coal oil (kerosene) lamps in Provo. You had to clean those chimneys every day. I used to take newspaper to wipe out the black. Then I would wash them and polish them and trim the wicks so if you wanted it brighter, you twisted a thing on the side to make the wick go up and absorb a little more kerosene out of the lamp. If you put it too high it would smoke and get the ceiling and walls black. Then you would have the chimney, ceiling and the wallpaper to clean. We could read by the coal oil lamp. We had a student lamp with a taller chimney. There was nothing to keep me from reading when I learned to read.
She went to the BYU Training School for kindergarten to eighth grade. She started kindergarten when she was four. Her dad thought that she should stay there for 2 to 3 years to get very prepared for first grade. She started first grade when she was seven.
She was thrilled to learn to read by the phonetic method (previously they taught by sight reading). The entire time at the BYU training school she had the same art teacher. She was able to learn woodworking, ceramics and jewelry. She had many music teachers. One teacher was so large that she couldn’t sit on the piano bench with him when playing duets.
Leona’s dad started the children early on music lessons. Leona learned piano and she was expected to accompany her father. He had Crandall to play the cello. Crandall was still young and small so he modified the viola using the butt of a buggy whip attached to the bottom. Clair was left handed, so he changed a bridge on the little violin for Clair so he could string it in the opposite direction. They made an excellent strings section.
Leona (piano), Crandall (viola) and her dad (violin) made a trio. Leona had to practice three hours each day: one hour with her dad and Crandall, one hour with scales and arpeggios, and one hour to play anything that she wanted to. She did this for 5 years during her junior and high school years. She got very accomplished. She played for the chorus and used the money to pay for her high school tuition.
Leona grew up with her family around her. She tells the story of her Grandpa Crandall’s home. It was built on three levels. Around the bottom on the back were the kitchen and pantries. On the second level were living rooms and on the third level were the bedrooms. Leona said, “Boy, when I was a kid, wasn’t it fun to climb to the top of the stairs and slide down the banisters to the first landing and the second landing and then to the bottom. I did it many times.”
“We always went to Grandma Crandall’s for Christmas. We would get hitched up with a big old lap robe over us in winter with hot bricks at our feet. They would open up both living rooms. There was a big hall in between the living rooms. The doors on each living room could be pushed back and make one big room. The tree was always in the big hall, in between the living rooms. The doors were always kept closed and locked to the children until Christmas morning. The parents would stay up late and try to get us to bed early. We had to be dressed before we could go downstairs to the tree in the morning. Aunt Eva would play a march, and we would all march around the tree, the youngest child first.
Uncle Myron remodeled the house two or three times. The last time he took the whole basement floor that had been kitchens, pantries and dining rooms and made it into a dance hall. Grandma’s house didn’t have indoor plumbing.”
Leona was taught to sew by her Great Grandmother Melissa Jane Metcalf. “Grandmother Metcalf could do anything. She had a big loom in the big house on the top floor, and she had a loom in her room. When they were first married she made all of the cloth for their clothes out of wool, as well as two coverlets for Grandma Crandall when she was married in 1869. She learned to sew in North Carolina where the mountain people knew how to weave and make so many things. This coverlet was made from wool that she had carded, dyed, spun and woven… Her wedding dress was made completely by hand using needles from England.”
“When I was ten I made my first dress. It was a costume I had to have for a rope drill in primary. My teacher cut it out for me. Mother was having a quilting party on the front lawn, and I went in the house and sewed it on her old treadle machine. It didn’t blouse just the way I wanted, so I basted in to my pantywaist that had three big buttons. You buttoned your bloomers to it and then it had garters that were long so that you would garter them into your stockings.”
Leona tells of the circus parades when they came to town. The parade consisted of all of those horse drawn wagons, carved and gilded so fantastically, with cages of lions, tigers, bears and monkeys. Some cages had only small windows up high so she could not see inside. Even though it piqued her interest, the cost prohibited her family from going. The clowns were so funny and the calliope was so loud and interesting with the steam coming out of the pipes as the notes were played. The elephants were so unexpectedly large and different from the animals she was knew. They would parade one behind the other with the one grasping the tail of the one in front with his trunk.
In 1916 Leona was promoted to sixth grade during the middle of her fifth grade year. In 1917 her sister Marian died September 26 and her brother Donald died October 19. In 1918 many of her neighbors died from the great influenza. On New Year’s Day 1919, her Grandma Metcalf died.
Leona tells, “It was immediately after the year of the flu that Papa had this outrageous idea to move West Tintic. The family got all messed up and Papa had gone out to the land at West Tintic in 1919. It began at the time of the flu. So many were sick and many people died around us. I think there were seven who died in our neighborhood. We lived in the home in Provo at 480 North 5th East. That was when my father started feeling like the last days had begun and he started the idea of getting a bunch to go off and live their religion the way they wanted. They got some land out at West Tintic and brought some barracks from Fort Douglas. They took the lumber and made some cabins for each family. It was clear off the end of the earth as far as I was concerned. I had to leave my friends in Provo to go there in the first place. They were so intent on having these meetings and meetings and meetings. The first Christmas after we got out there, there was not a thing for little kids for Christmas so I got tin cans and made a train. I made them get me some wood and made things with a coping saw. I didn’t have a jig saw. I made little trains for the boys and rocking ducks for the babies so they had a wonderful Christmas. They were so cute, the kids just had those toys I had made for them.”
“We were there about one year. Uncle Myron came out and got Mother, Barbara and me. They intended to be out there more than one year because they cleared the land of sagebrush and planted corn. The rabbits ate the corn, and they wouldn’t kill the rabbits because they didn’t believe in eating meat. They were there only that one year. Some stayed longer than that. Some of them came back to Springville, like the Hafen boys and Rachel and Marlowe Hafen, but Papa had gone off with May before that. She was Elvin Houtz’ wife. Mr. Houtz had rheumatoid arthritis and was very crippled by it. Papa was getting revelations all the time. He even told me he had a revelation for me to go with somebody. I didn’t know any of them. I knew the revelation was wrong all of the time. One time I went out to get a drink when one of these meetings was going on and I saw a little water snake and I screamed and screamed, hoping and hoping it would really disturb them. I hoped it would mess up the meeting.”
“I’ve got a lot of repenting to do. Papa came back to Springville when Priscilla was born just in time to come to the house to see her. He brought May with him and she was pregnant and I just wanted to kill them both so bad. I even hunted for a gun, and I couldn’t find one. They didn’t have one out there. One of the boys had a little 22 but I didn’t know where it was.”
Around the first of November Uncle Myron came and got Leona, Barbara and her mother, but left the boys there with their father. In early 1921 there was a church court. The group broke up and Moses moved to California. There was a civil court in Nephi to determine child custody. Moses took Crandall with him. May’s crippled husband married Delia Hafen and they took the name of Hale. His name had been Elvin Houtz. Erma and the children moved in with Grandma Crandall.
In 1921 Leona went to high school in Springville, where the family lived with Grandma Crandall in her house. In 1923 Leona graduated from high school as salutatorian.
Leona tells of an incident that happened while she was in high school. “On a certain Sunday I had gone across the street to my Uncle Myron’s large home library to find a book to read as I was in the habit of doing quite so often. I found a big comfortable chair and was soon engrossed in Robert Lewis Stevenson’s ‘Kidnapped.’ Several hours later, I finished the book, closed it, stretched myself out of the chair and then it hit me! I had forgotten an appointment I had made to play the accompaniment for my friend Jessie Johnson to sing in the First Ward Sacrament Meeting. Oh how could I do such an unforgivable thing? I looked at the clock and it was twenty minutes past time for the meeting to begin! I ran across the street crying and burst into the house. My Grandmother Crandall was the only one home and had been wondering where I was. I was crying so hysterically I could hardly make her understand what was the matter. She immediately said, ‘Wash your face, comb your hair, change your clothes and I will get the boys bicycle for you. You can get there before the meeting is over.’ However, another thought struck me, ‘I don’t have any stockings.’ In those days you don’t go anywhere without stockings. In fact one of the nightmares I used to dream…was to find myself in public, barefoot. Well, Grandmother, bless her heart, sat down, took off her shoes and stockings and handed me her stockings. …She was smaller than I but I took the stockings, got myself ready after a fashion and was soon pedaling feverishly up the street, over the D & R.G. Railroad tracks, around the corner and up the rest of the eight blocks to the meeting house. I do remember my heavy coat getting caught in the spokes of the bicycle. I was struggling to ride and it was slowing me down when every second counted. As I walked in, a sigh of relief burst forth from several parts of the room, the song was announced (for the third time I was told later), we performed and it was time for the benediction. It was some time before my friend, Jessie, and I could laugh together over that little episode.”
In the fall of 1923 she went to BYU. In 1925 she graduated with a two-year Normal Degree and received an Elementary Teaching Certificate.
For a special gift, her mother Erma Adella washed dress shirts and ironed and starched them to make enough money to buy a beautiful ruby solitaire ring set in gold. Leona felt that it was such a sacrifice, but her mother wanted to do something special for her for graduating from school. “I always had it in my mind that I would go back to school sometime and get my degree.”
Leona signed a contract to teach school in Cedar City. When her friend, Jessie Alleman, heard that she was going to Cedar City she told Leona that she had to meet Dan Clark because he was the greatest guy. Jessie showed her a picture of Dan. The first Sunday in Cedar City she went to church and sat by Dan Clark. She asked him if he was Dan Clark.
In 1926 when Dan and Leona were engaged, she was going home for Christmas, Dan wanted a picture of Leona while she was gone and wanted to have one of her dresses to hang in the closet while she was gone. It was black dress with red trim. It was crepe with a band soutach braid draped around and gathered at the waist with a fitted bodice. Dan did come to visit her during the holidays and Grandpa Myron Edgar Crandall wanted to make sure Dan was well taken care of. Grandpa was the most hospitable man. Leona’s wedding ring had a beautiful diamond with sapphires on each side. They were engaged one year so she could teach one full year since schoolteachers could not be married.
Dan and Leona were married 10 May 1927 in the St. George Temple. Dan worked as a night policeman and Leona did some student teaching and bought a chaise wicker lounge with her first money. She nursed all of her babies on that lounge. She also taught ballet in Cedar City. Dan worked with his brother Earl for a short time in the sheep business.
Leona had her first child on 28 December 1928. She named him Donald D. Clark.
In about 1930 Leona ordered a kit for her house from Aladdin Redi-Cut Company. She and her brother Keith and her cousin Sterling built their first house. They lived next door to Nana and Uncle John, Dan’s adopted parents who gave them property to build on. The property they gave them was the south half of their lot in Cedar City. Leona recalls, “I don’t remember where I got a catalogue to order an Aladdin Home from, but I did. It was shipped from Michigan on the railroad. All the lumber was cut and numbered piece by piece with directions to be carefully followed. It was a small home 25’ x 20’ with a living room, kitchen, bathroom and two bedrooms.
“My brother Keith and my cousin Sterling Crandall and I built it while the Uries fed us and took care of Donald, who was just a baby. I remember putting together a window in the back bedroom all by myself. We didn’t attempt to lath and plaster the inside walls, but Celotex instead and then we papered the walls. The outside of the house was redwood siding. We mixed cement and made a two step entry to the front door. I made it too smooth, and it was very slick in the winter time.”
“We hired a man to make a brick chimney and put the hot water tank in the bathroom. It was like a radiator in the center of the house. The water was heated by a monkey stove in the kitchen that also served as a cooking stove. The living room was heated by a coal-burning stove. We got a Mr. Lawrence to do the plumbing. The Depression hit as soon as the house was finished, and I had a hard time paying him the last $5.00.”
In 1929/30 Dan made a deal with Adams-McGill Company for a sheep ranch with a summer range in the mountains east of Ely. Dan rented the range to George Swallow the first two years to make enough for the down payment. He went back to Cedar City and got Gron Perry to become partners. Gron was supposed to give $50 per month in payment. However they had a hard time collecting from Gron. Dan eventually bought him out.
Leona and the children lived in Cedar City. Her brother Farrell lived with them while he went to college at the BAC. They spent the summers at the house at Success Mine near Ely, Nevada. Dan would be with the children regularly so Leona could paint. She did some of her best painting on the mountain of locations that are near and dear to the family.
John Calvert was born 22 August 1932, Howard Dexter was born 25 August 1934, and Malcolm G was born 30 July 1936.
In May of 1943 the family move to Ely and lived at 1032 G. in East Ely, Nevada. Then they moved to the big home at 1013 Avenue I in East Ely.
Leona said, “I had been making my boys clothes ever since Don was a baby. I made him a suit out of a suit coat that Dan brought back from his mission. I made the children’s clothes.”
During the Second World War, “we always went to Southern California to visit relatives and see the races at Santa Anita.” Dan loved the races. “We weren’t able to buy clothes for [Donald] during the war since everything was rationed, including food and gasoline. I went with Melba shopping and we were able to go to a tailor to get some good size scraps from a man’s suit he had made. It was worsted blue wool. I made Don a pair of pants and put a cuff in them. I let the cuff down when they went to John and the cuff went up again when they went to Howard and then to Malcolm and then to Webster, Clair’s boy. I made all of Barbara’s and Priscilla’s clothes.”
“I taught the ‘Make it Yourself With Wool’ Course. Dan was a member of the Wool Growers association. Leona was asked to be in charge of the contest in Nevada. Leona held the position for two years and had winners both years including a Japanese girl who was the national winner.
Leona tells about working in the Mutual when Don was a teenager and trying to get him to attend. He told her that he would go if she wouldn’t.
After Malcolm graduated Leona and Dan divorced. Leona bought a home in Orem, Utah with the settlement. She went back to school at BYU. Malcolm and one of his friends lived with Leona. All three of them were going to college together.
Leona got a degree in Elementary Education. She did very well in school, although she found Algebra very difficult because she didn’t take in high school. She was elected to Phi Kappa Phi and graduated with a GPA of 3.75.
Her best teaching offer came from Ely. She still had her property in Ely from the divorce settlement. While she was teaching in Ely, Malcolm graduated from BYU. After his graduation he moved down to Las Vegas near his wife Jeanette’s parents. Malcolm told Leona that Las Vegas needed teachers.
Leona moved to Las Vegas in June 1960 and signed a contract to teach kindergarten at Bonanza School. Leona bought a home that fall at 1260 Barnard Drive. “I taught in Las Vegas long enough to get Don through Dental School at the University of California San Francisco. John also got his Doctorate at the University of Utah in Electrical Engineering. They were both very brilliant in school, especially John in math and science. He worked for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at Livermore, California. He was working on the Strategic Defense Initiative when Reagan was President.”
Leona taught in Las Vegas until they made her retire in 1969 at the age of 65. She still wanted to teach. She said that if she was still teaching in Ely, she could have taught until she was 80. Her principal did receive some extra money to teach disadvantaged children. He called Leona back to teach some sixth graders how to read.
After retirement, she wasn’t eligible for social security because of her teaching retirement. So she supplemented her pension by teaching tailoring in adult education classes.
Leona was always very active. She loved to dance. “I took ballet in high school. When I went to Cedar City I taught ballet. Later I took a class at UNLV and I made an A. I was past 60 years old. This was after I was retired.”
A favorite story is told about when Leona and Jeanette were attending a Community Concert at the Las Vegas High School Auditorium. Jeanette had to leave early, so Leona left shortly after and was alone on the sidewalk. Someone thinking that she was an easy prey snatched her purse. They didn’t know Leona. She started screaming and chasing them down the street. She knocked on a neighbor’s door and told him to call the police. She continued screaming and chasing him. The Police Helicopter was overhead in minutes. The assailant threw the purse in the bushes and was arrested. Leona got her purse back!
In Las Vegas Leona continued her love for painting. She took a watercolor course in Las Vegas and a painting class in Sedona, Arizona.
In 1972 Leona took her granddaughter Kathy and her niece Georgia Erickson (Clair’s daughter) to Norway to find her relatives and do some genealogy. She was very successful, finding the farm at Kveteseid and her relatives living there.
In 1975 Leona was called to serve an 18-month mission in the Florida Tallahassee Mission. She did some nice watercolor paintings of the shrimp boats, which were prevalent in that area.
In 1977 Leona took another trip to Norway and took her granddaughter Chery, who was 14 years old at the time. She met all of her relatives and developed a close relationship with them. She made a native Telemark Norwegian costume that fit her and Chery. She gave the costume to Chery.
In about 1982 Leona began spending the summers in Springville to enjoy the company of her brothers and sisters who had moved back there. She also wanted to escape the Las Vegas heat.
In 1984 she bought a home at 133 East 200 North and in 1985 sold her home in Las Vegas and moved to Springville. She especially enjoyed the close association of her only living sister, Barbara and husband Johnny. They lived just up the street from her in Springville.
After moving to Springville, Leona took up the hobby of making and dressing porcelain dolls. Each daughter-in-law and granddaughter received one of these beautiful dolls that were made expressly for the person receiving it (i.e. similar hair color, eyes, face, etc). Leona could make anything. She was an expert in needlework. She crocheted a beautiful suit made of 500 medallions, each of which took one half hour to make. She gave this granddaughter, Debbie, who was her size. Leona’s gifts were usually something she made; tatted Christmas ornaments, knitted hats and vests for grandsons, her beautiful paintings, silk screened Christmas cards and valentines. When her grandchildren, Chery and Craig made a doll house in school, Leona made some of the furniture. A piano (with a music box inside), a platform rocker that rocked, a table and a ladder back chair. She was an example of developing one’s talents and sharing them.
Leona was always a student, with a thirst for knowledge and information, always studying the scriptures. At 93 her memory was still quite remarkable, being able to remember dates, places, and names. She always was fiercely independent and self-reliant. She was not a passive personality and will be remembered for her strong opinions, independence and feisty personality.
Tribute given at his mother funeral – Don Clark
Some of my memories of Mother I guess were listening to her play the piano. Usually what I remember best is being in bed and going to sleep while she played. It had a calming effect on me. I remember watching her don ballet slippers and dance around the room on her toes. I think I was about five at the time and I really thought it was a little ridiculous. Now looking back, I feel perhaps, she was just a little homesick for her family and the culture part of her growing up. I’m a little more understanding now that I’ve had a few years and a few children of my own. I remember also the funny little haircuts she made me wear and the funny short pants. She called the haircuts a Buster Brown I believe, and I didn’t like them very well. I will always thank Uncle John Urie, my Dad’s foster father. He took me to a barber and got me a real hair cut. I think the barber was a cousin of Dad’s, Dow Watson. Uncle John also felt the Buster Brown wasn’t manly enough. I will be eternally grateful.
Mother was an accomplished seamstress. She enjoyed sewing outfits for me. They were meticulously sewn. However some of her styling tastes really didn’t like too much. Being the first born has its crosses to bear. I always had to set an example for the little brothers. The subject was brought up so many times I would have liked to kill my brothers; just I wouldn’t have to listen to it anymore.
As her first born I’m sure she would have liked me to become a musician but it wasn’t meant for me I guess. I gave her hard times when it came to practicing the piano; however I did learn to play the cornet and I could play it fairly well and did enjoy it. Of course this delighted her and she made all the band concerts. I guess I would have liked a little more support on the sports area but this was not Mom’s ‘cup of tea’.
The one thing though that we did have in common was the enjoyment of using our hands. Mother taught me how to make things and this had always been a source of satisfaction for me. My profession requires me to use my hands on a daily basis and so I guess the training as a young boy started me on what has become a fascination with most all sorts of tools. Now if I could just time to use them. She had a coping saw and she taught me how to use it; then for Christmas she bought me a jigsaw. I had it for many years. We made many things together. She taught me wood carving and that always been enjoyable. I still have some of the pieces that were made while boy under her watchful eye.
Mother had a healthy respect and admiration for education. In fact bordering on obsession I would say. Of course now looking back, I suppose I have to say that a lot of the credit goes to her for what education I do have. Most of the time I appreciate what I do; and then there are other days. Depending what day you ask me. And yes I wonder at times what I would be doing if she hadn’t backed me into a corner and hounded me to go to school.. She took great pride in her children’s educational accomplishments. The more degrees you got the better she liked it. I must admit, for the most part it has served me well.
Mother liked to paint. Pictures that is. Well she painted a few houses too I guess. She even built a house with a little help from her brothers. Anyway, with art I suppose you can say she became quite accomplished. I remember at one time, I must have been in my early teens, she took me to Provo to meet B. F. Larson, a professor at BYU; he was painter of some note. She had studied with him at one time and wanted me to meet him. She loved Springville dearly. It was always her home; no matter where else she lived. It was always Springville that she claimed as home. Undoubtedly because, in her opinion, it was the cradle of all culture in the Arts. She reverenced the Springville Art Gallery and its artists – John Hafen, the painter, and Cyrus E. Dallin, the sculptor. Her parents had been given a painting by John Hafen for a wedding present. I believe they lived next door to Grandma and Grandpa Crandall. She made a deal with her brothers and sisters. If she made copies for all of them, then she could have the original.
She always enjoyed associating with artists and exchanging paintings. She ahs painted many of the places around Ely and that area. Mostly where we had our summer range in the mountains. She painted a picture of an old sheep wagon at our Central Summer Camp. This particular painting was included in the 1964 Nevada Centennial Calendar. I had it hanging in my Las Vegas office for many years. A woman patient of mine from Wyoming, with a sheep background, tried several times to buy this from me. Of course it wasn’t for sale.
Mom also had an obsession with Norway and Norwegians. Undoubtedly because she had some Norwegian ancestry. She was an avid genealogist. In fact what ever would undertake she attack it with a vengeance. She pursued her Norwegian ancestry and made a couple of trips to Norway and found several cousins. They corresponded and some came over for visits. She became an expert on Norwegian pronunciation. And would correct us all. What would you call a person like that. She became quite a boor in fact. I would deliberately mispronounce words to get her all riled up.
Mother lived a long productive life. The last few years were her hardest. It was hard for all of us to see her body so worn out and yet her mind so active. She still enjoyed our Sunday visits and talking about her family Genealogy. She enjoyed the Readers Digest’s Word Power and usually never missed too many of them. Her mind was always something she liked to hone and keep sharp. She took great pride to have graduated from BUY with honors. She hated being confined to a body that wouldn’t work for her anymore. She had always taken such measures to keep fit and able. I can remember when she was eighty, she could lay on her back and roll up to her feet without touching anything.
I’m thankful for the good memories I have of Mother. For having the Gospel taught to me at an early age; for the knowledge I have of the truthfulness of the Resurrection and knowing that we will be with loved ones again. I’m thankful she is now with her loved ones and free of her confinement.I know the Gospel is true, that Jesus is the Christ and the Savior of all. I’m grateful for His atoning sacrifice for me and for the power of the Resurrection; for in this surety that we all will live again. I’m grateful for a loving and kind Heavenly Father who is mindful of all our needs, for the knowledge that through our faith we will all be together again through out the eternities and for the comfort for Holy Ghost in my life.
 Leona lived at 331 West 3rd North, Provo
WEST TINTIC BRANCH, Tintic Stake, Juab Co., Utah, consisted of
Latter-day Saints who started a United Order of their own in the west
part of the Tintic Mining district, 22 miles by nearest road southwest
of Eureka, and about 20 miles north of Leamington on the Los Angeles and
Salt Lake Railroad. The people in the West Tintic Branch were engaged in
dry farming and cattle-raising, and had, while the settlement existed, a
Sunday school and other organizations in running order.
In April, 1918, Moses S. Gudmundson and Octavius Gudmundson entered 320 acres of land each under the Smoot Act. They and other settlers then founded the settlement which became known as West Tintic. Some of the land secured by these settlers contained small springs. Moses S. Gudmundson and others bought a "full barrack building" from Fort Douglas and shipped the same by rail to Jericho, on the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, put up a store house, a blacksmith shop, a power house, a garage, and ten small residences. One of the larger buildings served for public gatherings as a sort of community house. The saints who had located here were organized as a branch of the Church Oct. 12, 1919, with Moses S. Gudmundson as presiding Elder. But as some of the members practiced principles which were contrary to the order of the Church, the presiding Elder, Moses S. Gudmundson, was released and J. Leo Hafen chosen as his successor. The branch, however, was disorganized Feb. 20, 1921. While the community existed the families worked together on a community basis. They bought groceries, hardware and clothing by wholesale, and established a sort of United Order, or co-operative farm. (Andrew Jenson, Encyclopedic History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [Salt Lake City: Deseret News Publishing Co., 1941], 942.)
 Excommunication was found necessary, after an impartial Church trial, a short time ago, in the case of a number of men and women belonging to the West Tintic branch, of the Tintic stake of the Church, in eastern Juab county. The persons excommunicated are: Moses S. Gudmundson, violinist and former professor of music at the Brigham Young university, who began the establishment of a new movement on the strength of revelations which he has claimed to have received; J. Elvan Houtz, David Whyte, Gerald H. Lowry, and J. Leo Hafen. The following were disfellowshiped: Mrs. May Metcalf Houtz, Mrs. Delia Hafen Whyte, Mrs. Minerva B. Weight, Mrs. Lucy Warren Metcalf, Ralph B. Weight, Thomas D. Nisbet, and Levi G. Metcalf, Jr. Gudmundson was the leader of a colony that located in West Tintic and there began to adopt certain practices contrary to the teachings of the Church. One of their false doctrines was knows as, "The Doctrine of Wife Sacrifice"—another form, apparently, of the old story of "communal marriages" or promiscuity in sex relations. One of the principles adopted by the colony required the sale by members of all earthly possessions, the proceeds being placed in the name of Mr. Gudmundson, who devoted these funds to the purchase of supplies for the community life. [Passing Events, Improvement Era, 1921, Vol. Xxiv. May, 1921 No. 7]
 A trademark used for a building board that is employed as insulation or paneling.
 The National Make it Yourself With Wool (MIYWW) contest still exists. In 2003, the first-place ranking in the senior division received a $1,500 scholarship from the American Sheep Industry Women, wool fabric from Forstmann Co. and Britex of San Francisco, and a sheep pelt from Stockman Bank of Billings. The contest was held in conjunction with the 2003 American Sheep Industry Convention held in Washington, D.C. The senior division was open to participants age 17 to 24.
 A detailed description of her trip can be found the “History of Erma Leona Gudmundson Clark”
Last updated Saturday, November 21, 2009